Working Papers

Below is a table of the VTP working papers currently stored on this site.  The table can be sorted by clicking on one of the column headings.  Clicking on a title displays an abstract of that paper.  The paper itself can be downloaded from the abstract.


1. 19th Century Ballot Reform in California: A Study of the Huntington Library's Political Ephemera Collection

Melanie Goodrich, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


2. Residual Votes Attributable to Technology: An Assessment of the Reliability of Existing Voting Technologies

Voting Technology Project

2008-11-30


3. A Modular Voting Architecture (FROGS")"

Shuki Bruck, California Institute of Technology

David Jefferson, Compaq

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


4. Ballot Design Options

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


5. Election Day Voter Registration in the United States: How One-Step Voting Can Change the Composition of the American Electorate

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Stephen Ansolabehere, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Catherine H. Wilson, Northwestern University

2008-11-30


6. Whose Absentee Votes Are Counted? (April 2004)

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, The Century Foundation

2008-11-30


7. Who Overvotes, Who Undervotes, Using Punchcards? Evidence from Los Angeles County

Betsy Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


8. Vertical Proximity Effects in the California Recall Election

Sarah M. Sled, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


9. The Complexity of the California Recall Election

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Melanie Goodrich, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, The Century Foundation

D. Roderick Kiewiet, California Institute of Technology

Sarah M. Sled, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

2008-11-30


10. Why Everything That Can Go Wrong Often Does: An Analysis of Election Administration Problems

Thad E. Hall, The Century Foundation

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


11. Using Recounts to Measure the Accuracy of Vote Tabulations: Evidence from New Hampshire Elections 1946-2002

Stephen Ansolabehere, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Andrew Reeves, Harvard University

2008-11-30


12. The SAVE System: Secure Architecture for Voting Electronically

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Jonathan Goler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


13. Where the Good Signatures Are: The Number and Validity Rates of Initiative Petition Signatures Gathered in California Counties

Frederick J. Boehmke, University of Iowa

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


14. The Introduction of Voter Registration and Its Effect on Turnout

Stephen Ansolabehere, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

David M. Konisky, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


15. Certification and Voting Software: Position Statement

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


16. Security Vulnerabilities and Problems with VVPT

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Jon Goler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


17. An N-Version Electronic Voting System

Soyini D. Liburd, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


18. The Voter Verifiable Audio Audit Transcript Trail (VVAATT)

Ted Selker, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


19. Processes Can Improve Electronic Voting: A Case Study of an Election

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


20. The Reliability of Electronic Voting Machines in Georgia

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


21. Studying Elections: Data Quality and Pitfalls in Measuring the Effects of Voting Technologies

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Stephen Ansolabehere, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


22. Rational and Pluralistic Approaches to HAVA Implementation

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2008-11-30


23. Orienting Graphical User Interfaces Reduces Errors: The Low Error Voting Interface

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Matt Hockenberry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

John Goler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Shawn Sullivan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


24. Who Does Better with a Big Interface? Improving Voting Performance of Reading for Disabled Voters

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Jonathan A. Goler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Lorin F. Wilde, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


25. Residual Vote in the 2004 Election

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


26. Whose Absentee Votes Are Counted? (February 2005)

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Betsy Sinclair,  California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


27. The Influence of Initiative Signature Gathering Campaigns on Political Participation

Frederick J. Boehmke, University of Iowa

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


28. An Active Approach to Voting Verification

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Sharon Cohen,  Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


29. American Elections: A Critical Moment for Research and Reform

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


30. Voter Registration: Past, Present, and Future

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


31. Testimony on Voter Verification

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


32. Machines Versus Humans: The Counting and Recounting of Pre-Scored Punchcard Ballots

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Jonathan N. Katz, California Institute of Technology

Sarah A. Hill, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


33. Is It Better to be First or Last? The Ballot Order Effect

Betsy Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

2005-06-30


34. Whose Absentee Votes Are Counted: The Variety and Use of Absentee Ballots in California

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Betsy Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


35. Preliminary Voting -- Prevoting

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


36. Measuring the Improvement (Or Lack of Improvement) in Voting Since 2000 in the U.S.

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


37. Measuring the Impact of Voting Technology on Residual Vote Rates

Delia Grigg, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


38. Lessons and Trends in E-Voting: Initiatives in the U.S. and Abroad

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2008-11-30


39. Precinct Voting Denial of Service

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


40. Potential Threats to Statewide Voter Registration Systems

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


41. Encrypted Receipts for Voter-Verified Elections Using Homomorphic Encryption

Joy Marie Forsythe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


42. Application of Lean Management Principles to Election Systems

Tomer Posner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-31


43. Qualitative Evaluation: VotoElectronico: Prueba Piloto 2005

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


44. How Much is Enough? The Ballot Order Effect" and the Use of Social Science Research in Election Law Disputes"

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Betsy Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

Richard L. Hasen, Loyola Law School

2009-01-01


45. The Influence of Initiative Signature Gathering Campaigns on Political Participation (II)

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Frederick J. Boehmke, University of Iowa

2005-11-30


46. Auditing Technology for Electronic Voting Machines

Sharon B. Cohen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


47. Who Should Run Our Elections? Public Opinion About Election Governance in the United States

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Morgan Llewellyn, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


48. How Hard Can It Be: Do Citizens Think It Is Difficult to Register to Vote?

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Morgan Llewellyn, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2008-11-30


49. Are Americans Confident Their Ballots Are Counted

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Morgan Llewellyn, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2008-11-30


50. Election Fraud References

Sarah Hill, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


51. Advances in Cryptographic Voting Systems

Ben Adida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


53. Military Voting and the Law: Procedural and Technological Solutions to the Ballot Transit Problem

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Brian F. Roberts, University of Utah

2008-11-30


54. On Estimating the Size and Confidence of a Statistical Audit

Javed A. Aslam, Northeastern University

Raluca A. Popa, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


55. On Auditing Elections When Precincts Have Different Sizes

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


56. The ThreeBallot Voting System

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


57. The Effect of Voter Identification Laws on Turnout

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Delia Bailey, Washington University in St. Louis

Jonathan N. Katz, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


58. Access Versus Integrity in Voter Identification Requirements

Stephen Ansolabehere, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-31


59. New Barriers to Participation: Application of New Mexico's Voter Identification Law

Lonna Rae Atkeson, University of New Mexico

Lisa A. Bryant, University of New Mexico

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Kyle L. Saunders, Colorado State University

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


60. Internet Voting in Estonia

Alexander H. Trechsel, European University Institute, Florence, Italy

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2008-11-30


61. Study Shows Ballot Design and Voter Preparation Could Have Eliminated Sarasota Florida Voting Errors

Ted Selker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


62. Ukraine’s 2007 Parliamentary Elections: Free and Fair or Fraud Once Again and the Argument for Election Observers

Mikhail Myagkov, University of Oregon

Peter C. Ordeshook, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


63. Russian Elections: An Oxymoron of Democracy

Misha Myagkov,  The University of Oregon

Peter C. Ordeshook, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


64. Assessing the Impact of Voting Technologies on Multi-Party Electoral Outcomes

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Ernesto Calvo, University of Houston

Marcelo Escolar, Universidad de Buenos Aires

Julia Pomares, London School of Economics

2008-11-30


65. Building Secure and Transparent Elections Through Standard Operating Procedures

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2008-11-30


66. Mobilizing Pasadena Democrats: Measuring the Effects of Partisan Campaign Contacts

Betsy Sinclair, The University of Chicago

Asa Hopkins, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


67. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Estimating Ordinal Treatment Effects

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Delia Bailey, Washington University in St. Louis

Jonathan N. Katz, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


68. Voter Confidence in Context and the Effect of Winning

Morgan H. Llewellyn, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


69. UOCAVA: A State of the Research

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-01-01


70. Flooding the Vote: Hurricane Katrina and Voter Participation in New Orleans

Betsy Sinclair, The University of Chicago

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


71. Election Technology and the Voting Experience in 2008

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-11-30


72. Bibliography of Research Literature on Instant Runoff Voting

Inés Levin, California Institute of Technology

2009-02-01


73. Is There Racial Discrimination at the Polls? Voters' Experience in the 2008 Election

Stephen Ansolabehere, Harvard University

2009-03-01


74. Correcting for Survey Misreports Using Auxiliary Information with an Application to Estimating Turnout

Jonathan N. Katz, California Institute of Technology

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

2009-05-01


75. Measuring the Effects of Voter Confidence on Political Participation: An Application to the 2006 Mexican Election

Inés Levin, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2009-06-01


76. Electronic Elections in a Politicized Polity

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-06-01


77. Voter Attitudes Toward Poll Workers in the 2008 Election

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-04-01


78. Voting Technology and Innovation (April 2009)

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-04-01


79. Electoral Context and Voter Confidence: How the Context of an Election Shapes Voter Confidence in the Process

Morgan H. Llewellyn, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2009-06-01


80. Policy-Based Abstention in Brazil's 2002 Presidential Election

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

2009-04-01


81. 2008 Survey of the Performance of American Elections

Charles Stewart III,  Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-07-01


82. Racial Differences in Election Administration

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-07-01


83. Detecting Voter Fraud in an Electronic Voting Context: An Analysis of the Unlimited Reelection Vote in Venezuela

Ines Levin, California Institute of Technology

Gabe Cohen, California Institute of Technology

Peter Ordeshook, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2009-08-10


84. Interstate Voter Registration Database Matching: The Oregon-Washington 2008 Pilot Project

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Jeff Jonas, IBM Entity Analytics

William E. Winkler, Bureau of the Census

Rebecca N. Wright, Rutgers University

2009-08-10


85. Auditing the Election Ecosystem

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Lonna Rae Atkeson, University of New Mexico

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-08-10


86. Voting Technology and Innovation (August 2009)

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-08-01


87. Resolving Voter Registration Problems: Making Registration Easier, Less Costly and More Accurate

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2009-08-01


88. A Data-Centered Look at the Election of 2008

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-09-01


89. Up to the Promise? The Impact of Electronic Voting on Trust in the Election Process in Latin America

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

Julia Pomares, London School of Economics

2009-10-01


90. The Human Dimension of Elections: How Poll Workers Shape Public Confidence in Elections

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

J. Quin Monson, Brigham Young University

Kelly D. Patterson, Brigham Young University

2009-09-01


91. Assessing the Impact of E-Voting Technologies on Electoral Outcomes: An Analysis of Buenos Aires' 2005 Congressional Election

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

 Ernesto Calvo, University of Houston

Marcelo Escolar, Universidad de Buenos Aires

Julia Pomares, London School of Economics

2009-08-10


92. Assessing Voters' Attitudes Towards Electronic Voting in Latin America: Evidence from Colombia's 2007 E-Voting Pilot

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

Ricardo Llamosa, Universidad Industrial de Santander

Hugo E. Martinez, Universidad Industrial de Santander

2009-10-01


93. Evaluating New Voting Technologies in Latin America

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Gabriel Katz, California Institute of Technology

Julia Pomares, London School of Economics

2009-12-14


94. Measuring Election Performance

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2009-12-11


95. Making Voting Easier: Convenience Voting in the 2008 Presidential Election

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Ines Levin, California Institute of Technology

J. Andrew Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

2010-03-15


96. Scantegrity II Municipal Election at Takoma Park: The First E2E Binding Governmental Election with Ballot Privacy

Richard Carback, UMBC CDL; Jeremy Clark, University of Waterloo; John Conway, UMBC CDL

2010-02-01


97. The American Internet Voter

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Betsy Sinclair, University of Chicago

2009-09-01


98. Voter Opinions about Election Reform: Do They Support Making Voting More Convenient?

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

Ines Levin, California Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-07-14


99. Voting Technology and the Election Experience: The 2009 Gubernatorial Races in New Jersey and Virginia

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2010-07-14


100. Reflections on the VTP's Contributions to Science, Policymaking and Education

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ron Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-09-01


101. Research Note on Footnote 24 of the 6th Circuit Hunter Decision

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-02-03


102. What Hath HAVA Wrought? Consequences, Intended and Not, of the Post-Bush v. Gore Reforms

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-04-07


103. Voter Confidence in 2010: Voter Identification, Perceptions of Fraud, Winning and Losing and the Voter Experience

Lonna Rae Atkeson, University of New Mexico

2011-04-17


104. Poll Workers and Polling Places

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah, Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project

Kathleen Moore, University of Utah

2011-04-16


105. Voting Technology, Vote-by-Mail, and Residual Votes in California, 1990-2010

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Dustin Beckett, California Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-05-05


106. The Balance Between Preventing Fraud and Ensuring Participation: Attitudes Towards Voter Identification in New Mexico

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Lonna Rae Atkeson, University of New Mexico

Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

J. Andrew Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

2011-07-01


107. Results and Implications: The June Top-Two" Primary & California's 2012 Legislative Races"

J. Andrew Sinclair, California Institute of Technology

2012-11-02


108. Voting: What Has Changed, What Hasn't, & Why Research Bibliography

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology; Jonathan N. Katz, California Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Stephen Ansolabehere, Harvard University; Thad E. Hall, University of Utah

2013-01-09


109. Pattern Matching Encryption, Strategic Equivalence of Range Voting and Approval Voting, and Statistical Robustness of Voting Rules

Emily Shen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-02-13


110. Waiting to Vote in 2012

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-04-01


111. The Recruitment and Training of Poll Workers: What We Know from Scholarly Research

Barry C. Burden, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Jeffrey Milyo, University of Missouri

2013-09-06


112. Administration of Absentee Ballot Programs

Barry C. Burden, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Brian J. Gaines, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

2013-07-15


113. Lessons from the 2012 Election Administration and Voting Survey

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Daron Shaw, University of Texas at Austin

2013-08-03


114. Waiting in Line to Vote

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Stephen Ansolabehere, Harvard University

2013-07-28


115. Report on Provisional Ballots and American Elections

Daron Shaw, University of Texas at Austin

Vincent Hutchings, University of Michigan

2013-06-21


116. Reducing Obstacles to Voting for People with Disabilities

Lisa Schur, Rutgers University

2013-06-22


117. Election Administration during Natural Disasters and Emergencies: Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 Election

Robert M. Stein, Rice University

2013-09-04


118. Report on Registration Systems in American Elections

Stephen Ansolabehere, Harvard University

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-06-26


119. Voting by Overseas Citizens and Deployed Military Personnel

Donald S. Inbody, Texas State University

2013-06-01


120. Voting Technology: Vote-by-Mail, and Residual Votes in California, 1990-2010

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Dustin Beckett, California Institute of Technology

2013-09-01


121. In Line or Online? American Voter Registration in the Digital Era

Allyson Pellissier, California Institute of Technology

2014-02-18


122. Practical End-to-End Verifiable Voting via Split-Value Representations and Randomized Partial Checking

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CSAIL

Michael O. Rabin, Harvard University, SEAS, Columbia University, SEAS

2014-04-03


123. Written Testimony of Charles Stewart III Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-05-14


124. Practical Provably Correct Voter Privacy Protecting End-to-End Voting Employing Multiparty Computations and Split Value Representations of Votes

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CSAIL

Michael O. Rabin, Harvard University, SEAS, Columbia SEAS

2014-05-12


125. Partisanship and Voter Confidence, 2000-2012

Michael W. Sances, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-06-01


126. Scantegrity Responds to Rice Study on Usability of the Scantegrity II Voting System

Neal McBurnett, Richard T. Carback, David Chaum, Jeremy Clark, John Conway, Aleksander Essex, Paul S. Herrnson, Travis Mayberry, Stefan Popoveniuc, Ronald L. Rivest, Emily Shen, Alan T. Sherman, and Poorvi L. Vora

2014-12-28


127. A Population Model of Voter Registration and Deadwood

Stephen Pettigrew, Harvard University

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2016-04-03


128. Towards Secure Quadratic Voting

Sunoo Park, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ronald L. Rivest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2016-04-22


129. Election Monitoring Using Twitter

Nicholas J. Adams-Cohen, California Institute of Technology

Clare Hao, California Institute of Technology

Cherie Jia, California Institute of Technology

Nailen Matschke, California Institute of Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

2016-11-07


130. A Taxonomy of Protest Voting

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

D. Roderick Kiewiet, California Institute of Technology

Lucas Núñez, California Institute of Technology

2016-11-23


131. Electoral Vulnerabilities in the United States: Past, Present, and Future

Charles Stewart III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2017-1-30


132. Fraud, Convenience, and E-Voting: How Voting Experience Shapes Opinions About Voting Technology

R. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology

Ines Levin, University of California, Irvine

Yimeng Li, California Institute of Technology

2017-1-30